The Architect has a wide ambit in giving instructions during the subsistence of a construction contract.
Condition 2.1 of the PAM Form 2006 requires the Contractor to comply (mandatorily) to instructions issued by the Architect. Failure to do so (provided the Architect’s instruction is within the ambit of the contract) would subject the Contractor to severe penalties including set-off of all costs paid to third parties to comply with the Architect’s instructions, as well as potential termination of the contract.
But whilst the Architect may do much, he nevertheless does not have carte blanche to do as he wishes. As mentioned, the scope of the Architect’s instruction must first and foremost be within the ambit of the contract.
Besides the scope, the Architect also has to be mindful of the timing in which he issues his instructions.
During the contract period, if an Architect issues his instructions but these instructions are not made on a timely basis, it could lead to a successful application for an extension of time by the Contractor. A late instruction may also lead to a loss and expense claim (for example, where works have to be re-constructed in order to comply with the Architect’s requirements).
Once a CNC is issued, any instruction by the Architect would almost inevitably lead to an extension of time. This is because once post-CNC, every task would be deemed critical as the Contractor is on extended time and would also be incurring liquidated damages on a daily basis.
What about after CPC?
Whilst the PAM Form does not stipulate that Architect’s instructions are only to be given during the currency of the contract, nevertheless it would seem logical that Architects are not entitled to issue instructions once CPC has been obtained. After all, the very definition of CPC is that the Works are practically completed save for minor defects. Therefore, how would it be justifiable for the Architect to continue issuing instructions when the Architect himself has acknowledged that the works have been practically completed?
As for the issue of ongoing defects rectification, by right such rectification works should not require an instruction from the Architect. After all, the obligation to carry out such rectification works are already stipulated in the contract itself, and there is no need for a further instruction to compel parties to do what they have already contracted to do in the first place.
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